Avian Toxicology

Heavy metal intoxication is not uncommon in caged and wild birds. Caging material and paint can be source of lead or zinc if chewed or ingested.




Lead: Live bird: Minimum of 200 μL blood in a lithium heparin tube or EDTA.

Dead bird: Fresh liver and kidney (as much as available)

Zinc: Live bird: Minimum 200 μL blood in lithium heparin or plain tube – do not use EDTA as it chelates the zinc

Dead bird: Fresh liver, kidney or pancreas (minimum 100g of tissue)


Lithium heparin or EDTA - blood

Plain container (yellow top) - tissues

Collection Protocol:

Standard venepuncture or post-mortem collection.